This is one of those things where you will have to know what widgets are where by knowing the page and “position” they are in, then in your Widget manager (as I call it), you can open those widget positions and see all widgets in that position…hopefully the one you will be editing.
If you use JetPack, it has a nice feature that goes on the bottom of each widget to show what pages that widget is on. The other method is Dynamic Widgets, but it means you still have to open the settings for it to see where it’s assigned.
Overall, there is no easy way to look at one location and see where each one is and on what page. My best recommendation is to be familiar where your widgets are in your pages, the positions they are in, and then in your admin, that info will help you determine where your widget is by opening the widget position.